AFT - Toward the rear (stern) of the boat. Behind.
ATHWARTSHIP(S) - Across the boat.
ABEAM - At right angles to the keel of the boat, but not on the
ABOARD - On or within the boat.
ABOVE DECK - On the deck (not over it - see ALOFT)
ABREAST - Side by side; by the side of.
ADRIFT - Loose, not on moorings or towline.
AFT - Toward the stern of the boat.
AGROUND - Touching or fast to the bottom.
AHEAD - In a forward direction.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION - Artificial objects to supplement natural
landmarks indicating safe and unsafe waters.
AIR DRAFT – Height of the craft above the waterline.
AIR-DRIED LUMBER - Lumber or other wood products that have been
either dried by exposure to natural atmospheric conditions outdoors
or in an unheated shed. Wood that is dried to equilibrium with the
surrounding atmosphere. Moisture content of air-dried wood fibre
depends on relative humidity, temperature, and length of drying
period. Also referred to as air seasoned and contrasts with
kiln-dried (KD) lumber.
ALEE - Away from the direction of the wind. Opposite of windward.
ALOFT - Above the deck of the boat.
AMIDSHIPS - In or toward the centre of the boat.
AMINE BLUSH - Most epoxies used in boatbuilding have "amine"-based
hardeners. After the epoxy is cured there will usually be a
noticeable oily residue on the surface called amine blush. The
amount of amine blush can vary considerably, from almost
unnoticeable to very oily. This difference is the result of
differences in temperature and humidity. The amine blush can affect
the bond of subsequent coats of epoxy or paints and should be
removed. Although a variety of solvents have been used to remove
amine blush, in the shop we use denatured alcohol (shellac thinner),
lacquer thinner or acetone. Amine blush can be sanded off, but will
require a lot of sandpaper as the paper tends to clog quickly.
ANCHORAGE - A place suitable for anchoring in relation to the wind,
seas and bottom.
ANTI-TRIP CHINE - A flared out aft section of the side/bottom of the
boat. The purpose is to prevent the hard chine of the boat catching
a wake or small wave on a sharp turn.
ASPECT RATIO - The relationship between the height of a sail and its
breadth. i.e. A sail with a height of 30' and a breadth of 20' has
an aspect ratio of 3:2.
ASTERN - In back of the boat, opposite of ahead.
ATHWARTSHIPS - At right angles to the centreline of the boat;
rowboat seats are generally athwart ships.
AWEIGH - The position of anchor as it is raised clear of the bottom.
BACKSTAY - A wire-rope from the top of the mast
leading aft to prevent the mast from bending forward
BALLAST - Weight carried low in a boat to increase stability. The
lower, the greater the benefit. Ballast can be lead, iron, concrete,
etc., depending on the space available. Some boats require lead (a
more expensive material) because the space available will not allow
sufficient lighter material to achieve the required ballast weight.
BARGE – usually an inland waterways or eastury craft and often
unpowered with a beam over 7+ feet. NOT an other name for a
MOTOR BARGE - A powered Barge.
BATTENS - Thin semi-rigid strips of wood or synthetic material
inserted into pockets in the sail in order to maintain the shape of
the sail. Interior longitudinal reinforcements in a boat hull. Most
often located on either side of the keel, running as far forward as
possible. Battens are also used to reinforce the sides of some
BATTEN DOWN - Secure hatches and loose objects both within the hull
and on deck.
BEAM - Width, generally the widest point on the hull, but beam could
be given at any point in the hull. "The beam at the transom, at
frame number three."
BEARING - The direction of an object expressed either as a true
bearing as shown on the chart, or as a bearing relative to the
heading of the boat.
BELOW - Beneath the deck.
BIGHT - The part of the rope or line, between the end and the
standing part, on which a knot is formed. BILGE - The interior of
the hull below the floor boards.
BITTER END - The last part of a rope or chain. The inboard end of
the anchor rode.
BLOCK - A wood, metal, or synthetic casing containing one or more
pulleys or sheaves.
BOARD FOOT - A lumber measurement. One board foot = 1" X 12" X 12".
A piece of lumber 2" X 12" X 12" = 2 board feet. When width and
thickness are specified, lumber may be called out as linear feet,
i.e., 1" X 6" X 24 linear feet. Linear feet is used when the lumber
will be cut into various lengths, as opposed to a piece 1" X 6" x
24' which would be a single piece of wood.
BOAT - A fairly indefinite term. A waterborne vehicle smaller than a
ship. One definition is a small craft carried aboard a ship.
BOAT HOOK - A short shaft with a fitting at one end shaped to
facilitate use in putting a line over a piling, recovering an object
dropped overboard, or in pushing or fending off.
BOBSTAY - A chain, wire-rope, or rod supporting a bowsprit or
boomkin against upward pull.
BOLTROPE - Rope sewn along one or more edges of a sail to strengthen
it and take some of the stress of the cloth when it is stretched
BOOKMATCH - A term in veneering, where successive pieces of veneer
from a flitch are arranged side by side. A properly done bookmatch
will resemble a mirror image of the opposite side.
BOOM - The pivoting horizontal "pole" attached to the aft side of
the mast to control the foot of the sail.
BOOMKIN - A spar projecting from the stern to which is attached a
backstay or sheet.
BOOT TOP - A panted line, just above the waterline.
BOOT TOP - A painted line that indicates the designed waterline.
BOW - (as in bow-wow, not bow tie) The front of the boat
BOW LINE - A docking line, (rope) leading from the bow
BOWLINE - A knot used to form a temporary loop in the end of a line.
BOTTOM SHAPE - As it affects performance in a planing boat. Maximum
speed will be achieved when the bottom of the boat that forms the
planing surface is flat. When the planing surface is a vee, the boat
will have a softer ride but less potential speed, and will take
longer to come up on a plane. A "flat bottom" makes a better "drag"
boat, a deep vee will be a better rough water boat.
BOWSPRIT - A tapered pole extending forward of the bow of a sailing
boat to which the forestay fastens. The purpose being to increase
the amount of sail area without raising the centre of effort.
BREASTHOOK - A knee which mounts atop the stem, to which the sheers
BRIDGE - The location from which a vessel is steered and its speed
controlled. "Control Station" is really a more appropriate term for
BRIDLE - A line or wire secured at both ends in order to distribute
a strain between two points.
BRIGHTWORK - Varnished woodwork and/or polished or painted metal,
usually above the hull.
BROADSEAM - A seam in a sail, in which the edges of neighbouring
panels are cut in a convex curve, so that when sewn together the
panels force fullness into the sail.
BULKHEAD - A vertical athwartship partition separating compartments.
, most often serving as a set-up member or frame.
BULBOUS FOREFOOT - A convex entry at the keel/stem junction (as
opposed to a sharp vee) incorporated to soften the ride. When used
in conjunction with a reverse curve at the chine, it usually makes
sheet materials impractical requiring other planking methods in the
BULWARK - An extension of the planking above the deck to form a
BUOY - An anchored float used for marking a position on the water or
a hazard or a shoal and for mooring.
BURDENED VESSEL - That vessel which, according to the applicable
Navigation Rules, must give way to the privileged vessel. The term
has been superseded by the term "give-way".
BURGEE - A triangular shaped flag denoting the yacht club to which
the owner belongs.
BUTT - Buttock. Used for developing the lines of a boat. Used only
for lofting the lines to full size; not required when patterns are
CABIN - A compartment for passengers or crew.
CAMBER - Athwartship curve of the vessel's deck or cabin top. Curve.
Sail term: The fore and aft curvature of a sail in relation to its
CANAL – A man made navigation on which boats can travel, ususlly
with the aid of locks. In the UK many canal craft are narrowboats.
CAPSIZE - To turn over.
CARLING - A longitudinal structural member at the cockpit perimeter
supporting the inboard side of the side deck. (See COAMING)
CARVEL PLANKING - Solid wood planks, butted together, fastened to
the ribs to form a smooth exterior, with a flexible caulking between
CAST OFF - To let go.
CAT RIG - Having a single mast and a single sail.
CATAMARAN - A twin-hulled boat, with hulls side by side.
CAVITATION - Essentially, to suck air. This term is primarily used
in conjunction with propellers and rudders. When cavitating, the
propeller will speed up, but power is lost; the rudder may lose
steering action. Cavitation most often occurs when turning. Both
result from a loss of a constant solid water flow. Power catamarans
usually require deflectors when a single motor is used, to direct a
flow of water to the propeller. Webster's Dictionary: "the formation
of partial vacuums in a flowing liquid as a result of a separation
of its parts". i.e. aeration of the liquid.
CENTREBOARD - A pivoting "keel" that retracts into a case inside a
sailing boat. Used to prevent leeway.
CENTREBOARD LIFT - A line or cable for raising and lowering the
centreboard on a sailing boat.
CENTRE OF EFFORT (CE)(Sail) - The fore and aft and up and down point
on a sail at which the pressure of the wind is concentrated. The
geometric centre of the sail. The higher CE, the more leverage the
wind has to heel the boat. When there is more than one sail, CE's
will be given on the drawing for each sail plus a combined CE. On a
triangle, the CE is the point at which the lines bisecting each
angle cross. The location of the CE fore and aft, affects the way
the boat turns into the wind. (See LEE and WEATHER HELM)
CENTRE OF LATERAL RESISTANCE (CLR) - The geometric centre or pivot
point of the underwater hull profile.
CHAINPLATE - A metal strap to which shrouds or fittings are
CHAFING GEAR - Tubing or cloth wrapping used to protect a line from
chafing on a rough surface.
- A map for use by navigators.
CHECKING (in wood) - Longitudinal separation of the fibers in wood
that do not go through the whole cross section. Checks result from
tension stresses during the drying process.
CHINE (Chine log) - - The intersection of the bottom and sides of a
flat or v-bottomed boat. (See Double Chine, Hard Chine and
CHOCK - A fitting through which anchor or mooring lines are led.
Usually U-shaped to reduce chafe.
CLEW - The lower, aft corner of a fore-and-aft sail, where the leech
meets the foot.
CLEAT - A fitting to which lines are made fast. The classic cleat to
which lines are belayed is approximately anvil-shaped.
CLOVE HITCH - A knot for temporarily fastening a line to a spar or
CHORD - A straight line between the luff and leech of a sail.
CLINKER - The edges of the planks are overlapped to form an
irregular exterior, much like siding on a house. Also called
CLIPPER BOW - A bow where the stem has a forward curve and sides
have a lot of flair. Also called a schooner bow.
CLUB-FOOTED JIB - A jib with a boom or "club" on the foot of the
COAMING - A longitudinal member at the cockpit, hatch or hold
perimeter; a decorative piece fastened to the carling, usually
protruding above the side deck to prevent water from entering the
COCKPIT - "In small decked vessels, a sunken space toward the stern
used by the helmsman." ...Webster's New World Dictionary.
More commonly, in a boat, this refers to the outside working or
seating area below the sheer. Bow riders have a forward cockpit. On
a centre console, the inside area could be called a cockpit, but
this term is more often used to define a more limited area deck from
which the boat is handled
COIL - To lay a line down in circular turns.
COURSE - The direction in which a boat is steered.
CROSSCUT - Sails in which the panels of cloth run perpendicular to
CRINGLE - A metal ring or grommet around a hole in the sail for
CRUISER - (Power boat) A boat with certain minimum appurtenances for
living afloat. These are sleeping accommodations, cooking
facilities, a toilet, some lounging space, and fuel and water tanks.
The terms sedan, express, and day are loose categories meant to
place emphasis on certain capabilities. A sedan cruiser has more
glass and more lounging area, express is faster, and a day cruiser
has minimal accommodations and usually only practical for limited
CUDDY - A small shelter cabin in a boat.
CURRENT - The horizontal movement of water.
CUNNINGHAM - A line device or cringle located several inches above
the tack of the sail; used with a downhaul to control the tension
along the luff and hence the shape of the sail. Primarily used in
CUTTER RIG - One mast, one sail aft of mast, two or more forward.
Similar to a sloop except that there are at least two triangular
sails forward of the mast. The mast is stepped farther aft than a
sloop, creating a larger foretriangle. Because of the large area,
multiple, smaller sails, are easier to handle than one large sail.
The rig allows more versatility than a single large sail but is less
powerful in light airs.
DAGGERBOARD - A blade shaped centreboard that is
lifted out of a case when raised. Usually only suitable for small
DAVITS - Curved uprights projecting over the side of larger boats
for suspending, or raising and lowering a smaller boat.
DEAD AHEAD - Directly ahead.
DEAD ASTERN - Directly aft.
DEAD-RISE - Looking at the hull in cross section, the angle the
bottom rises from a horizontal.
DECK - A permanent covering over a compartment, hull or any part
DEEP VEE - A hard chine power boat having a 15 degree or more angle
deadrise at the transom.
DINGHY - A small open boat. A dinghy is often used as a tender for a
DISPLACEMENT - The weight of water displaced by a floating vessel,
thus, a boat's weight.
DISPLACEMENT HULL - A type of hull that will not exceed a fixed
speed, that plows through the water, displacing a weight of water
equal to its own weight, even when more power is added. (See PLANING
DOCK - A protected water area in which vessels are moored. The term
is often used to denote a pier or a wharf.
DOLPHIN - A group of piles driven close together and bound with wire
cables into a single structure.
DORY - The traditional dory is a small, flat-bottomed fishing boat
with high flaring sides, and considerable sheer. The commercial
fishing dories of New England were stacked on a larger boat and
transported to the Grand Banks where they were off-loaded with a
fisherman, and later retrieved. The boats were noted for their sea
worthiness. The term “dory” appears to have come from an Indian term
for a dugout. Over the years the dory has evolved to encompass
various types of boats, usually characterized by flat bottoms and
flaring sides. Some of the “improvements” of previous models have
made them hard to recognize as dories. The “Pacific Dory” has a flat
bottom, flaring sides, a wide transom and is capable of planing. The
following designs are classified as dories: DORY, LUCKY PIERRE,
BIG/LITTLE/WEE HUNK, HUNKY DORY, and ALPHA 2.
DOUBLE CHINE - Having an additional planking junction between the
chine and the sheer, giving the hull a more rounded look.
DOUBLE DIAGONAL planking is more involved; used when compound shapes
are incorporated into the hull (i.e. “bulbous forefoot”, “reverse
curve”, “round bilge”). Uses strips of plywood or solid wood veneers
laid over the hull in layers of opposite diagonals, glued together,
most often with epoxy.
DOUBLE HEADSAIL RIG - Two sails forward of the mast as in a cutter.
DRAFT - The depth of water a boat can travel over without hitting
DRY ROT - A fungous decay causing seasoned lumber to become brittle
and crumble to powder. Dry rot needs extended periods of moisture
(fresh water), oxygen, and dry rot spores to thrive.
DUTCH BARGE – A barge built for use on the Dutch and continental
waterways usually for commercial freight transport. A term used in
the UK to describe continental craft regardless of their country of
A term often misused to describe barges built in the UK that are
solely for leisure or residence and that bear little resemblance to
EBB - A receding current.
FAIRING - The process of bevelling the stem,
chine, sheers, keel, and frames so that the planking will have flat
surfaces to glue and fasten to. A “fair” hull is one with no dips or
bumps in the longitudinal lines of the hull. Fairness is checked by
sighting down the longitudinal lines. (See BOATBUILDING
METHODS/Plywood for more information.)
FATHOM - Six feet.
FENDER - A cushion, placed between boats, or between a boat and a
pier, to prevent damage.
FIDDLE - A frame or railing on a boat's table to keep dishes, etc.
from falling off in rough weather. Fiddles are frequently left open
at the corners for drainage.
FIGURE EIGHT KNOT - A knot in the form of a figure eight, placed in
the end of a line to prevent the line from passing through a grommet
or a block.
FILL - The thread that runs across sail cloth from edge to edge.
FILLET/FILLETING - A fillet is a cove shape made with putty on an
inside corner. The term is most often used in reference to
Stitch-N-Glue boat building. A fillet is made with activated epoxy
resin, thickened with various fillers, to a putty consistency. The
putty is "globbed" into place and smoothed with a rounded tool. (See
Boatbuilding Methods: Stitch-N-Glue.)
FIXED KEEL - Usually associated with a sailing boat, this is simply
a non-retractable keel. A fixed keel trailerable boat requires a
special trailer and special launch facilities.
FLARE - The outward curve of a vessel's sides near the bow. A
FLITCH - A log sawn on two or more sides from which veneer is
FLOOD - A incoming current.
FLOORBOARDS - The surface of the cockpit on which the crew stand.
FLOOR TIMBER - A scab that joins two-part bottom frames at the
FLUKE - The palm of an anchor.
FORECASTLE– the part of the vessel at the bow, usually where the
crew is quartered.
FOCASTLE – Forecastle
FO’C’S’LE - Forecastle
FO’C’SLE - Forecastle
F.O.B. - This is a shipping term, not a boat term. It means “freight
on board”, or that the
FOLLOWING SEA - An overtaking sea that comes from astern.
shipper will put the freight on a truck, but the consignee pays
FOOT - The lowest edge of a sail.
FORE-AND-AFT - In a line parallel to the keel.
FOREPEAK - A compartment in the bow of a small boat.
FORETRIANGLE - The area forward of the forward mast in which sails
can be set. A sail that fills that area.
FORWARD - Toward the bow of the boat.
FOULED - Any piece of equipment that is jammed or entangled, or
F.P. - "Forward perpendicular". This is an naval architecture term.
It will usually be seen on the #2 plansheet, where the various
stations are shown. This represents the end of the stem, or the last
station from the transom.
FRAMES - Athartship members (ribs) of the hull framework. Frames can
be divided into two categories: sawn or bent frames. Sawn frames are
assembled from separate pieces, either lapped or gusseted together
to form the station contour. Bent frames are bent around a form or
into a hull using one or more layers of solid wood. No Glen-L
designs use bent frames. Frames can be lapped with a piece of
plywood filling the interior frame space to form a bulkhead.
FREEBOARD - The minimum vertical distance from the surface of the
water to the gunwale or sheer.
GAFF RIG - Has a lower boom and an upper "mast" or
boom that attaches to the mainmast. The sail is a quadrangle. This
is an older style rig currently used to give a boat a traditional
look. Does not come to windward as well as "modern" rigs, requires
more hardware, including separate halyards, one for the main and one
for the upper boom. Generally less efficient for top performance,
but does have less windage aloft when sail is reduced.
GALLEY - The kitchen area of a boat.
GANGWAY - The area of a ship's side where people board and
GARVEY HULL - A hard chine hull in which the chines do not join on
the stem centreline. (See PLAY PEN design)
GARBOARD - The plank adjoining the keel. Also called garboard
strake. Garboard drain plugs are installed in the at the lowest
point along the garboard
GEAR - A general term for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment.
GEL COAT - A semi-thixotropic, air-inhibited, usually pigmented
resin that is applied to a waxed mold surface over which subsequent
fibreglass layup is made. When the piece is removed from the mold,
the gel coat becomes the outside finish.
GENOA - A large, low cut, jib that overlaps the mast.
GIVE-WAY VESSEL - A term used to describe the vessel which must
yield in meeting, crossing, or overtaking situations.
GOOSENECK - A fitting used to attach the boom to the mast and which
permits the boom to pivot. Also, the body part between the head and
the body of a goose; most often used for making gravy.
GRAB RAILS - Hand-hold fittings mounted on cabin tops and sides for
personal safety when moving around the boat.
GROUND TACKLE - A collective term for the anchor and its associated
GUDGEONS AND PINTLES - Hardware used to connect an "outboard" rudder
to the back of the boat. The pintle has a pin (male part), The
gudgeon accepts the pintle (female part). There are different
styles, sometimes with the pintle on the rudder, sometimes on the
GUNKHOLING - Cruising in shoal water or overnighting in small coves.
GUNWALE (GUNNELS) - Originally applied to the bulkheads that
supported a ship's guns; the upper edge of the side of a boat. Is
frequently used interchangeably with SHEER. The upper edge of a
GUSSET - A scab that joins the side and bottom frame members at the
chine, or that joins the side and the deck frames.
HALYARD - A line used to raise and lower the
sails. External halyards are located outside the mast; internal
halyards pass through the inside of a hollow mast.
HANK - A metal or nylon clip used to hold the luff of a headsail or
staysail to the forestay.
HARDWOOD - A description applied to woods from deciduous
broad-leafed trees (Angiosperms). The term has no reference to the
actual hardness of the wood. Hardwoods have traditionally been used
in making such products as furniture, strip flooring, interior trim,
boats, cutting boards, novelties, etc. Wood used in making these
products is typically in the form of relatively small and
defect-free pieces which are subsequently glued together; it is also
generally more costly than wood from softwood species. Because of
these factors, hardwood lumber is manufactured to non-standardized
length and width dimensions which will minimize trim waste. For the
same reasons, such lumber is measured relatively accurately, with
rounding of measurements in small increments.
HARD CHINE - An abrupt intersection between the hull side and the
hull bottom of a boat so constructed. Having a distinct bottom/side
planking junction as opposed to a rounded curve.
HARPIN - A sheer sawn to shape as opposed to being bent to shape
around the frames. The harpin may be only a portion of the sheer
(usually the forward section) or the complete sheer. Glen-L supplies
a pattern or dimensions for the harpin.
HATCH - An opening in a boat's deck fitted with a watertight cover.
HEAD - A marine toilet. Also the upper corner of a triangular sail.
HEAD (Re: Sail) - The top edge of a four sided sail or the top
corner of a triangular sail.
HEADING - The direction in which a vessel's bow points at any given
HEADWAY - The forward motion of a boat. Opposite of sternway.
HEARTWOOD - The wood making up the centre part of the tree, beneath
the sapwood. Cells of heartwood no longer participate in the life
processes of the tree. Heartwood may contain phenolic compounds,
gums, resins, and other materials that usually make it darker and
more decay resistant than sapwood.
HELM - The wheel or tiller controlling the rudder. HELMSPERSON - The
person who steers the boat.
HITCH - A knot used to secure a rope to another object or to another
rope, or to form a loop or a noose in a rope.
HOLD - A compartment below deck in a large vessel, used solely for
HOOK (re. boat bottom) - This is one of two conditions in the bottom
of a planing boat that can lead to performance problems. When the
boat is rightside-up, the bottom curves up from the transom; is
"dished" forward of the transom. This "hook" will drive the bow
down, reducing performance. Can also lead to the bow "bobbing" up
and down. The aft section of the hull, seen in profile, should be
straight. See ROCKER
HOUND - A wraparound mast fitting used to secure the forestay and
other fittings to the mast on a jibhead rig.
HOUSE - Apart from the obvious meaning, this is a term applied to
the cabin on a boat such as ‘Wheel House’
HULL - The main body of a vessel.
INBOARD - More toward the centre of a vessel;
inside; a motor fitted inside a boat.
IN-LINE INBOARD ENGINES - A centrally mounted inboard, with the prop
shaft usually coming directly off the engine or transmission;
in-line with the engine.
INBOARD OUTBOARD - A propulsion system that uses an inboard motor,
mounted at the transom, with a propeller assembly, similar to the
bottom of an outboard, mounted on the outside of the transom,
bolting to the motor with the transom sandwiched between. Also
called a stern drive. In most designs it can be used optionally to a
v-drive, or jet drive.
INTERCOSTALS – An arrangement (stiffener) which links the ribs.
INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY - ICW: bays, rivers, and canals along the
coasts (such as the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts), connected
so that vessels may travel without going into the sea.
JACOBS LADDER - A rope ladder, lowered from the
deck, as when pilots or passengers come aboard.
JETTY - A structure, usually masonry, projecting out from the shore;
a jetty may protect a harbour entrance.
JIB - A triangular sail forward of the forward mast, usually
attached to the forestay.
JIBHEAD RIG - In a jibhead rig the forestay does not attach to the
masthead but at a point lower on the mast where the top of the jib
meets the mast.
JIBHEAD RIG - In a jibhead rig, the forestay does not attach to the
masthead, but at a point lower on the mast where the top of the jib
meets the mast.
JOSHER – Canal Narrowboat built for the fleet of Fellows Morton &Co
and Fellows Morton & Clayton. The craft were built with riveted Iron
sides and an elm bottom.
KEEL - The junction of the bottom planking along
the centreline of the boat or the inside member backing this
junction aft of the stem. The term also refers to an outer
longitudinal appendage on the centreline. The purpose of this member
is to keep the wind from blowing the boat sideways from its forward
course. The keel also serves to protect the prop on a power boat.
KERF - The cut made by a saw blade.
KETCH RIG - Two masts, three sails. The ketch is very similar to the
yawl. Both rigs have a main, foretriangle, and a mizzen. The ketch
generally has its mizzenmast (aft mast) farther forward than a yawl
allowing for a larger mizzen. There are various definitions of what
constitutes the difference between the two rigs: That a ketch's
mizzen must be at least 2/3 of her main, that a yawl's mizzenmast is
less than half the height of her mainmast. At the extremes, these
rigs are easy to distinguish but there is a mid "grey" area where
identification is open to interpretation.
KILN - In lumber drying, a kiln is a room or building where
temperature, moisture, and the amount of air circulating are
controlled to dry wood.
KILN DRIED - (KD) Freshly cut green lumber may be sold green or
first dried in a kiln to accelerate removal of the moisture in the
wood. Drying wood in a kiln is an art to ensure that the wood dries
evenly to retain its strength and aesthetic properties. Different
species dry at different rates. Kiln dried lumber commands a higher
price than green or air dried lumber.
KNEE - A brace or reinforcement between two joining planes. On our
boat designs, knees are used to reinforce the junction between the
bottom and the transom, between the sides and transom.
KNOT - A measure of speed equal to one nautical mile (6076 feet) per
hour. (To convert to miles per hour, use the following formula:
speed in mph = speed in knots divided by .87)
KNOT - A fastening made by interweaving rope to form a stopper, to
enclose or bind an object, to form a loop or a noose, to tie a small
rope to an object, or to tie the ends of two small ropes together.
LAPSTRAKE - See PLANKING METHODS-WOOD: Clinker
LATEEN RIG - One mast, one sail, two booms. (See BUCKBOARD design)
LATITUDE - The distance north or south of the equator measured and
expressed in degrees.
LAUNCH - A large, open motorboat
LAZARETTE - A storage space in a boat's stern area.
LEAD - The distance between the CLR and the CE of a vessel.
LEATHERS - Pieces of leather that are stitched and/or tacked around
an oar to protect it where it rides in the oar lock. They usually
have a stop or "button" to keep the oar from sliding out of the oar
lock when left unattended. The button can be a thin strip of leather
or knotted twine that is tacked and/or glued in place on top of the
leather at the handle end of the oar.
LEE - The side sheltered from the wind.
LEEBOARD - These are paddle-shaped boards installed on the outside
of the gunwale on each side of a sailing boat. The board on the
"lee" side is lowered to prevent leeway. Single leeboards are used
as a way of converting a non-sailing boat to sail without the
necessity of cutting holes in the hull or installing permanent
LEECH - The aft most or back edge of a sail.
LEE HELM - A condition in which the tiller must be held toward the
downwind side of a sailing vessel in order to maintain course. An
undesirable condition for safety and hydrodynamic reasons. (See
LEEWARD - On a hull, the side away from the direction of the wind;
the protected side. In the days of sailing ship warfare, you wanted
your opponent in your lee (to leeward) which took his wind and gave
you the advantage. The direction away from the wind. Opposite of
LEEWAY - The sideways drift from course of the boat caused by either
wind or current.
LIFT STRAKES - Longitudinal members running fore and aft on the
outside bottom of the hull. The purpose is to stabilize and create
lift on a deep vee hull when under power.
LIMBER - A hole or channel that allows water to drain to the lowest
point in the hull. Limbers can be through frames, usually at the
keel or other longitudinal, can also be cut through longitudinals.
LINE - Rope and cordage used aboard a vessel.
LOFTING - Lofting is the process of drawing the hull lines full size
from the designer’s scale drawings. The intersections of the
contours of various horizontal and vertical sections are measured
from an imaginary “base line” using an architect’s scale. These
junctions are then laid out, point by point, in their full size.
Because it is difficult to take accurate dimensions from a small
drawing, it is necessary to adjust these lines to assure that they
are “fair”. A listing of these points is called a table of offsets.
It takes a lot of space to loft. This, along with the difficulty,
makes it a daunting task and a real drag to those builders who just
want to get at the “wood”. All GLEN-L designs have full size
patterns... no lofting required.
LOG - A record of courses or operation. Also, a device to measure
LONGITUDE - The distance in degrees east or west of the meridian at
LONGITUDINALS - Those hull framing members that run the length of
the boat (i.e. chine, keel, sheer, battens).
LUBBER'S LINE - A mark or permanent line on a compass indicating the
direction forward parallel to the keel when properly installed.
LUFF - The front or leading edge of a sail.
LUMBER - Lumber is simply solid wood that has been sawn to a
particular size. Traditionally produced from very large diameter
logs, lumber is now often made from logs as small as 8 to 12 inches
(20 to 30 cm) in diameter. A variety of equipment is used to produce
lumber. Newer mills that process softwood logs combine scanners,
computers to calculate optimum sawing sequences, and high speed,
thin-kerf saws designed to obtain maximum lumber yield. The newest
"lumber" products are not lumber at all in the traditional sense,
but composite products created from veneers, thin flakes, or other
materials such as plastic. Such products have more uniform strength
properties than solid-sawn wood and can be made to large sizes even
when using small trees as raw material. Lumber is always measured,
bought, and sold based on nominal, rather than actual, sizes.
Measurements are affected by moisture content and, in the case of
hardwoods, by whether boards are surfaced or unsurfaced.
MAX BEAM - The greatest width of the boat.
MARLINSPIKE - A tool for opening the strands of a rope while
MASTHEAD RIG - The forestay attaches to the masthead.
MIDSHIP - Approximately in the location equally distant from the bow
MILL CHIPS - After debarking and before a sawmill cuts lumber, it
saws off the outer four slabs to reduce the log to a square or
rectangular shape. The slabs are mostly the sapwood portion of the
log and may be resawn to save low quality boards (e.g., Pallet
boards), or the slabs are sent to the chipper. Most chippers pass
their chips over a two-deck vibrating screen to separate the "overs,"
"accepts" and "fines." The "overs" are re-circulated through the
chipper again and the "fines and sawdust" are blown into their own
pile. The chip "accepts" are blown into a pile for processing into
MIZZEN - A sail aft of the aft mast on a multi-masted boat.
MOISTURE CONTENT - Weight of the water within a piece of lumber
measured as a percentage of the weight of the dry wood. Typical
moisture content for kiln dried construction lumber is 15%. Wood
absorbs or gives off moisture depending on the ambient moisture in
the air. The percentage of wood that is not moisture is referred to
as "dry solids," that is, dried construction lumber would be 85% dry
solids. Product standards for lumber manufactured in the United
States are developed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department
of Commerce and administered by the American Lumber Standards
Committee (ALSC). Members of the ALSC are representatives of various
softwood lumber trade associations. As specified in the ALSC
American Softwood Lumber Standard, softwood lumber is sold as "dry"
if at a moisture content of 19% or less. Most hardwoods manufactured
in the United States are produced to standards developed by the
National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA). No single moisture
content, however, is specified for hardwoods because the uses are
more specialized. The moisture content must be specified by the
buyer and agreed to by the seller; a 10% moisture content
specification is common.
MONOCOQUE - A structure in which the outer covering (planking)
carries all or a major part of the stresses.
MONOHEDRON - From the Greek word hedron (a geometrical figure having
any number of planes). The theoretical ideal shape for planing over
the water surface is one of constant (mono) section. Thus monohedron
describes a hull that has a running surface of constant section; in
practice the sections may not be exactly the same.
MOORING - An arrangement for securing a boat to a mooring buoy or a
MOTORSAILER - A combination of sailing boat and motorboat; a
compromise, neither the ideal sailing boat or powerboat.
MOTOR WELL - When an outboard motor is mounted on the transom, a
motor well is a box-like structure in front of the motor that
catches water that may wash over the outboard cut-out and allows it
to drain over the transom and not into the boat. When a motor is
mounted in front of the transom, motor well refers to a box-like
structure that surrounds a hole in the bottom of the boat. The well
usually allows the motor to tilt up, frequently through a cut-out in
the transom. This type of motor well allows the handling of nets or
fishing lines over the transom without having to work around the
MULTI-CHINE - Having one or more additional planking junctions
between the chine and the sheer.
MULTI- DIAGONAL planking is more involved; used when compound shapes
are incorporated into the hull (i.e. “bulbous forefoot”, “reverse
curve”, “round bilge”). Uses strips of plywood or solid wood veneers
laid over the hull in layers of opposite diagonals, glued together,
most often with epoxy.
NARROWBOAT – or NARROW BOAT – A canal boat with a
beam of about 7 feet.
NAUTICAL MILE - One minute of latitude; approximately 6076 feet -
about 1/8 longer than the statute mile of 5280 feet.
NAVIGATION - The art and science of conducting a boat safely from
one point to another.
NAVIGATION RULES - The regulations governing the movement of vessels
in relation to each other, generally called steering and sailing
NORTHWICH – Colloquial term for a narrowboat build at W.J. Yarwoods
of Navigation Road Northwich Cheshire.
OAR LOCKS (ROWLOCK ) - A device for holding an oar
in place when rowing or steering. The majority of commercially
available oar locks consist of a "socket" and a "horn". The horn can
be U-shaped or round. In the past various other systems of holding
the oar have been used. See THOLE.
OFFSETS - Measurements supplied by a designer for the builder in
order to lay
down the lines of the hull. Glen-L patterns eliminate the need for a
table of offsets.
OUTBOARD - Toward or beyond the boat's sides. A detachable engine
mounted on a boat's stern.
OUTHAUL - The line used to pull a sail toward the end of the boom,
or the grommet at the corner of the sail to which that line
OVERBOARD - Over the side or out of the boat.
OXSTER (Plate) – The lower horizontal plate which forms the base of
a counter stern. (AKA Uxster)
PAINTER - A line made fast to the bow of a small
boat. This rope has nothing to do with painting but is used to
"snare" a cleat on shore or alongside another boat. The French word
"pantiere" means a noose.
PEAK - The upper aft corner of a gaff-headed sail.
PENNANT - A pointed flag.
PIER - A loading platform extending at an angle from the shore.
PILE - A wood, metal or concrete pole driven into the bottom. Craft
may be made fast to a pile; it may be used to support a pier (see
PILING) or a float.
PILING - Support, protection for wharves, piers etc.; constructed of
piles (see PILE)
PILOTING - Navigation by use of visible references, the depth of the
PINKIE - Sometimes applied to a sharp sterned skiff, but more
properly to a stern projection of the gunwales to a sharp point
above a narrow transom, originally to carry a coat of arms or other
PITCH - Plunging forward, the rising and falling of the bow and
stern of a boat; a fore and aft motion as opposed to roll.
PITCH (Propeller) - The angle at which a propeller cuts through the
water. Pitch is measured as the distance a propeller would move
forward with a single rotation, if there was no resistance. In our
Inboard Hardware catalogue a propeller might be described as a 12 x
15 x lh x 1, 3-blade propeller. (12" dia., 15" pitch, left hand
rotation, 1" shaft)
PLANING - A boat is said to be planing when it is essentially moving
over the top of the water rather than through the water.
PLANING HULL - A hull that lifts and skims the surface of the water
causing the stern wake to break clean from the transom. In practical
terms, a planing hull has a speed potential limited only by weight
and power. (See DISPLACEMENT HULL)
PLYWOOD -Sheets of wood consisting of three or more sheets of wood
glued and bonded by heat and pressure with the grain of each sheet
running perpendicular to adjacent layers.
PORT - The left side of a boat looking forward. A harbour.
PRIVILEGED VESSEL - A vessel which, according to the applicable
Navigation Rule, has right-of-way (this term has been superseded by
the term "stand-on").
PRAM - A dinghy with a transom at the bow and stern.
PRISMATIC COEFFICIENT - The ratio the hull displacement bears to the
displacement of a shape which is the same length as the waterline
length of the boat and has the same constant cross-sectional area as
the greatest cross-sectional area the hull.
QUARTER - The sides of a boat aft of amidships.
QUARTERING SEA - Sea coming on the aft corner (quarter) of a boat.
QUARTER-SAWN - A method of cutting lumber where the annual rings are
relatively perpendicular to the face of the board. Quarter-sawn
lumber tends to be more dimensionally stable than other forms of
lumber, such as plain-sawn.
RAKE - The fore or aft angle of the mast from
REEVE - To thread a line through a block, fairlead or hole of any
RESORCINOL GLUE - An adhesive made from resorcinol resin and
REVERSE CURVE - A concave curve in the bottom at the chine. The
usual purpose is to deflect spray.
RIGHTING MOMENT - A measure of the tendency of a sailing boat to
return to upright when heeled. It is a product of the distance
between the centres of gravity and buoyancy and the total weight of
the boat. A measure of stability.
ROACH - The part of the sail that extends beyond the straight line
between the head and the clew. Roach is sometimes also applied to
ROCKER (re. boat bottom) - This is one of two conditions in the
bottom of a planing boat that can lead to performance problems. When
the boat is rightside-up, the bottom curves up toward the transom.
This will lead to "porpoising". A similar effect will result from
"rounding" the trailing bottom edge at the transom. In the extreme
and/or at high speed, this can be dangerous. The cause is usually
caused by allowing the transom to drop during construction. The aft
section of the hull, seen in profile, should be straight. See HOOK
RODE - The anchor line and/or chain.
ROLL - Side to side motion on a boat as opposed to pitch, the fore
and aft movement.
ROPE - In general, cordage as it is purchased at the store. When it
comes aboard a vessel and is put to use it becomes line.
ROTARY-CUT VENEER - Veneer cut in a lathe which rotates a log
chucked in the centre against a knife. This method of peeling is
used to produce decorative veneers and is a common method of
manufacturing veneers for plywood.
ROWLOCK (OARLOCKS) - A device for holding an oar in place when
rowing or steering. The majority of commercially available oar locks
consist of a "socket" and a "horn". The horn can be U-shaped or
round. In the past various other systems of holding the oar have
been used. See THOLE
RUDDER – A Device that steers the boat. Usually a vertical plate or
board hung from the aft.
RUDDER SHAFT – Shaft about which the rudder blade pivots.
RUDDER POST - Stay which links the Skeg to the counter or under side
RUN - To allow a line to feed freely.
RUNNING LIGHTS - Lights required to be shown on boats underway
between sundown and sunup.
RUNNING RIGGING - Sheets, halyards, topping lifts, etc. by which the
sails are raised, trimmed or controlled.
SAE - The Society of Automotive Engineers is a
professional organisation and standards body for the engineering of
powered vehicles of all kinds - cars, trucks, boats, aircraft and
more. The most familiar to the average American consumer are its
standards for measuring automobile power in units of horsepower (SAE
SAIL, SOCK-TYPE - A sail with a longitudinal sleeve sewn into the
luff edge. This "sock" is meant to slide over the mast. This type of
sail is used on a free-standing mast and is held on the mast with a
downhaul line or is attached to the gooseneck. (See the EIGHT BALL,
DINKY, and FOAMEE.)
SAPWOOD - The new wood in a tree that lies between the bark and the
Heartwood. Sapwood is usually lighter in colour and becomes
heartwood as the tree ages. In a growing tree, sapwood contains
living cells and reserve materials such as starch. Under most
conditions the sapwood is paler in colour and more susceptible to
decay than heartwood.
SANDWICH CORE - A “one-off” fibreglass construction method that uses
an inner core that is temporarily fastened to a form, covered with
SATELLITE NAVIGATION - A form of position finding using radio
transmissions from satellites with sophisticated on-board automatic
SCHOONER RIG - Two or more masts, rigged fore and aft.
SCOPE - Technically, the ratio of length of anchor rode in use to
the vertical distance from the bow of the vessel to the bottom of
the water. Usually six to seven to one for calm weather and more
scope in storm conditions.
SCREW - A boat's propeller.
SCUPPERS - Drain holes on deck, in the toe rail, or in bulwarks or
(with drain pipes) in the deck itself.
SEA COCK - A through hull valve, a shut off on a plumbing or drain
pipe between the vessel's interior and the sea.
SEAMANSHIP - All the arts and skills of boat handling, ranging from
maintenance and repairs to piloting, sail handling, marlinespike
work, and rigging.
SEA ROOM - A safe distance from the shore or other hazards.
SEAWORTHY - A boat or a boat's gear able to meet the usual sea
SECURE - To make fast.
SET - Direction toward which the current is flowing.
SLOOP RIG - One mast, two sails. Has a main aft of the mast and a
triangular sail (jib) forward of the mast, usually attached to the
forestay. A sloop is more manoeuvrable than a cat rig, and more
versatile for reducing sail in a blow.
SPRIT RIG - A sprit is a boom that extends upward from the mast to
the topmost corner of a quadrangle sail. A sprit rig allows more
sail area on a short mast. (See SNEAKBOX design)
removed from the form, and fibreglass laminates applied to the
inside. See Building Methods/Fibreglass.
SAWN FRAMES - Frames can be divided into two categories: sawn or
bent frames. Sawn frames are assembled from separate pieces, either
lapped or gusseted together to form the station contour. Bent frames
are bent around a form or into a hull using one or more layers of
SHAFT HORSEPOWER (SHP) - A theoretical measurement of horsepower at
the propeller. If the BRAKE HORSEPOWER is known (normally the rated
horsepower), multiply by .7 for the approximate constant SHP.
SHARPIE - "Sharp"-bowed, flat bottomed skiff. A term usually applied
to flat bottomed sailing skiffs over 20' in length. All types of
rigs were traditionally used.
SHEER (Sheer clamp) - The junction of the side and deck or the
member backing this junction. A boat with a "lot of sheer" is higher
at the bow and stern than the centre when viewed in profile; with
little sheer, the sheer arc will be closer to a straight line (a hog
SHEET PLYWOOD is the simplest wood planking method.
SHOAL - Shallow
SHP - See SHAFT HORSEPOWER
SHROUDS - The stays that support the mast at the sides.
SKEG - A longitudinal appendage on a boat, on the outside, at the
centreline, providing directional stability and/or protection for
the prop and rudder.
SOFTWOODS - Generally lumber from a conifer such as pine or cedar.
The name softwood does not refer to the density of the wood. There
are some hardwoods, such as Balsa, which are softer than some
softwoods, like Southern Yellow Pine.
SOLE - Cabin or cockpit floor.
SPAR - Same as mast; usually applied to aluminium masts.
SPEED-LENGTH RATIO - A formula used to compare potential speeds of
displacement or semi-displacement hulls; not used for full planing
hulls. Few hulls reach their theoretical speed-length ratio.
Formula: Speed in knots=1.34 x square root of the waterline length.
SPILLING - A method of fitting longitudinal planking junctions.
SPINNAKER - A large triangular racing sail located forward of the
jib, attached to the mast and a spinnaker pole (boom). The sail is
used when running with the wind. The spinnaker pole allows the foot
of the sail to be held open to catch more wind. There are variations
of the spinnaker that do not use a pole.
SPLIT (in wood) - Separation of the fibers in a piece of wood from
face to face.
SPONSON - A projection or addition to the side or bottom of the boat
to help stabilize or provide lift. (See the TINY TITAN, SUPER
SPARTAN, and PICKLE FORK.)
STARCUT - Sails in which the panels of cloth radiate from all
corners, along the warp.
STATION - One of a series of equally spaced transverse "slices" of
the hull, as shown in the lines drawing of the plans. When building
a boat, there may or may not be frames or bulkheads at all or any of
the stations. Also referred to as section.
STEM - The junction of the planking at the forward end of a typical
hull. The member to which the planking attaches at this junction.
STRAKES - A single line of planking extending from bow to stern.
STRIP PLANKING - A planking method that uses strips of wood
installed longitudinally and edge-glued and fastened together.
Planks most often are made with "bead" and "cove" edges (somewhat
like male and female "ball and socket") to eliminate fitting the
STRONGBACK - A longitudinal batten along the decking centreline.
SHAFT HORSEPOWER (SHP) – Power of an engine or motor at the output
shaft, after any gearbox or transmission losses have been factored
in. Note 1 HP = 745.7 Watts or 550 foot-pounds per second)
SHIP - A larger vessel usually thought of as being used for ocean
travel. A vessel able to carry a "boat" on board.
SKEG – Extension of keel on which the lower pivot of the rudder
SKEG BAR – Stay which links the Skeg to the counter or under side of
SLACK - Not fastened; loose. Also, to loosen.
SOLE - Cabin or saloon floor. Timber extensions on the bottom of the
rudder. Also the moulded fibreglass deck of a cockpit.
SOUNDING - A measurement of the depth of water.
SPRING LINE - A pivot line used in docking, undocking, or to prevent
the boat from moving forward or astern while made fast to a dock.
SQUALL - A sudden, violent wind often accompanied by rain.
SQUARE KNOT - A knot used to join two lines of similar size. Also
called a reef knot.
STANDING PART - That part of a line which is made fast. The main
part of a line as distinguished from the bight and the end.
STAND-ON VESSEL - That vessel which has right-of-way during a
meeting, crossing, or overtaking situation.
STARBOARD - The right side of a boat when looking forward.
STEM - The forward most part of the bow.
STERN - The after part of the boat.
STERN LINE - A docking line leading from the stern.
STITCH-N-GLUE is a simplified sheet plywood method which eliminates
the use of stems and chines, thus avoiding the "fairing" required in
conventional plywood construction.
STRIP utilizes thin strips of wood, edge glued together. One method
uses the wood as a “core” with fibreglass on both sides (see
STRIPPER, GLEN-L 11 designs). The more common method uses strips
fitted, glued, and fastened on edge with optional fibreglass on the
outside only (See WHITEHALL, HARBOUR MASTER, AMIGO designs).
STOW - To put an item in its proper place.
SWAMP - To fill with water, but not settle to the bottom.
TABLE OF OFFSETS - See Offsets
TABERNACLE - The housing on a sailing boat deck that supports the
heel of the mainmast, with a hinged fitting so that the mast can
pivot and be lowered easily when passing under bridges and high
tension wires. Pivoting mast step.
TABLING - The folded hem sewn to the edges of a sail to reinforce
TABLOID CRUISER - A small cruiser.
TACK - The lower, forward corner of a sail.
THWARTSHIPS - At right angles to the centreline of the boat.
THOLE - One of a pair of wood or metal pins set vertically in the
gunwale of a boat that serve as oar locks.
TIDE - The periodic rise and fall of water level in the oceans.
TILLER - A bar or handle for turning a boat's rudder or an outboard
TOPSIDES - The sides of a vessel between the waterline and the deck;
sometimes referring to onto or above the deck.
TOPPING LIFT - An adjustable line from the mast to support the aft
end of the boom and to support in when the mainsail is lowered or is
TRANSOM - The member forming the aft (stern) end of the boat TRIM -
Fore and aft balance of a boat.
TUMBLEHOME - The top is closer to the centreline than the bottom.
Can be applied to the hull or cabin.
UNDERWAY - Vessel in motion, i.e., when not
moored, at anchor, or aground.
UXSTER (Plate) – The lower horizontal plate which forms the base of
a counter stern. (AKA Oxster)
V BOTTOM - A hull with the bottom section in the
shape of a "V".
VEE BOTTOM - Not flat athwartships. In a flat bottom boat (SISSY
DO), the chines meet the keel at the bottom of the stem. In a vee
bottom boat, the keel fastens to the bottom of the stem and chines
at a point above this junction, the higher, the more the vee. A
“flat bottom” ski boat has a vee bottom, the bottom is flat at the
transom. (See DEEP VEE, BOTTOM SHAPE)
V-DRIVE - A gear box that reverses the direction of the drive train
to allow the use of a standard prop shaft and prop with a rear
VENEER - Thin sheet of wood sliced, sawed, or rotary-cut from a log
or a flitch.
Rotary-cut Veneer - Veneer cut in a lathe which rotates a log or
bolt, chucked in the centre, against a knife.
Sawed Veneer - Veneer produced by sawing.
Sliced Veneer - Veneer that is sliced off a log, bolt, or flitch
with a knife.
VERTICAL CUT - Sails in which the panels of cloth run vertically or
parallel to the luff.
WAKE - Moving waves, track or path that a boat
leaves behind it, when moving across the waters.
WOOLWICH – Colloquial term for a narrowboat built by Harland & Wolf
at Woolwich, London
WATERLINE - A line painted on a hull which shows the point to which
a boat sinks when it is properly trimmed (see BOOT TOP).
WAY - Movement of a vessel through the water such as headway,
sternway or leeway.
WINDWARD - Toward the direction from which the wind is coming.
WANE - A lumber defect referring to the absence of wood or the
presence of bark along an edge or corner.
WARP – (1) Any variation from a true and plane surface. It includes
bow, cup and twist and is often caused by irregular seasoning.
(2) The threads that run lengthwise in a woven sailcloth across the
WATERLINE LENGTH-Significance: One of the factors used to determine
the speed potential of a displacement boat. The longer, the greater
the speed potential. The overall length is irrelevant; overhangs
fore and aft do not increase “hull speed” potential.
WEATHER HELM - A condition in which the tiller must be held toward
the windward side of a sailing vessel in order to maintain course. A
slight amount (3 to 7 degrees) is desirable. (See LEE HELM)
WINDWARD - Toward the direction from which the wind is coming. The
windward side of a hull receives the force of the wind. The leeward
side is the "calm& or protected side.
WIND SPEED - Near gale: Wind speed of 28 to 33 knots.
Gale: Wind speed of 34 to 40 knots.
Strong gale: Wind speed of 41 to 47 knots.
Storm: Wind speeds of 48 to 55 knots.
Greater wind speeds: Stay home.
WORLD CRUISING SAILING BOAT - See CRUISING
YARN - Fibres that are twisted together to form a
YAW - A vessel which will not hold a steady course, but swings from
side to side of it, is said to yaw. as when running with a
YACHT - A pleasure vessel, a pleasure boat; in American usage the
idea of size and luxury is conveyed, either sail or power.
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